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. 19 . 1850 ' . , 1890 1891 "" ( . ) .

1880 , . ܻ . . .

1871 - . 1873 - ( 1886 - -). 1880 . " " . . 1886 . . -, .

. , , . . 20 . 1922 .

( 1916 1928). "". 1930 . , , . .

, . , , , 1912 1922. , , , .

, , , , , .








1938

 

.
. . 1937 . 1936 "". 1937 . . , .




1938- 1960

 

1946. , , , . . (. ), , , . " ". 1940 1950 , .
.
( ) . 1950 .




1960

 

1960 . , , , 1960, . . . , , . 1961 ' : , , , . 1968 " ". , , "" . 1970 ( 1971, 1972).
, ( 1973, 1973, 1974, 1979, 1979 ..) . .
1980 ( . .), ( ), ( ).
1984 .
(The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, The New Oxford Companion to Music).
, , .

. , ;

, , , , , Gauntlett .






1947 . , , .






 

. , , -, , , , . .









 

. , 19 , .










 

. . ( ) . , , . .







 

-. , , . .









 

. . . .








 

' . (, , ...) . . 1935.

' 19 , , , , , , , . , 19 . "".






-

 

. . " [] " (. ) , " [] " (. ) .
1949 , 1970 "". " , ". H. N. .








 

. , , . , . , " " (-). .








...

 

1896 , , BERLINER. , 19 20 :